Cannabis is legal in the State of California. The county’s cannabis regulations are flawed and should be rewritten. They favor the large grower, and getting into compliance is driving small mom & pop growers out of the market or underground. Many find the requirements to be onerous and disproportionally expensive compared to their income.
Here are some of the main issues I think we need to address:
Industrial grows should only be permitted in areas zoned for industry. They should never be allowed in residential neighborhoods or adjacent to family farms. This is the current situation. People are having their lives disrupted by the noise of generators and light pollution, the constant roar of truck traffic, and more. By confining industrial grows to appropriately zoned areas, we will alleviate this problem.
Oversight and Regulation
Cannabis is an agricultural product. As such, it should be regulated by Agriculture, not Planning. Furthermore, for those farms that are not open to the public, we need to treat their barns and other such structures as farm buildings, not office buildings or habitations with ADA accessible bathrooms, fire sprinklers, heating and electricity, and so on. I am in favor of accessibility, but it is only necessary when the business is open to the public.
Humboldt Sun Grown Appellations
We have the brand, and we need to protect our share of the market. Only cannabis grown here under the sun should be able to claim to be that. I plan on supporting the creation of appellations to protect and reinforce our brands.
Farmers should be able to get a provisional permit right away, and then work on bringing their operations into compliance. There should be a reasonable timeline as well as guidelines that protect our water, land, and the environment. This way we will have more people operating above board rather than going underground.
Mom and pop growers built the Humboldt brand. They have had the hardest time coping with compliance. We need a low-fee, streamlined process for these small farmers. These family farms need an easy way to get permitted and into compliance.
Humboldt has unique local character
Unlike the vast majority of communities in the U.S., Humboldt has been spared the homogenization by corporate America. We still have local character and local business. We also have several large economic drivers, and those have changed over the years. In the employment sector we have governmental entities including cities, the county, and public education, including HSU and CR. Healthcare is large employer. Agriculture — including cannabis, dairy, cattle, fisheries, and timber — is another economic driver. Small businesses and tourism are vital and vibrant in our communities. There are business opportunities and jobs associated with green energy as well.
Focus on Local Business
To preserve our local character and keep profits and tax money in the county, I believe we should focus on supporting and developing locally-owned business rather than looking for corporate saviors. Not all corporations are bad for us. We have several corporations who contribute greatly to our communities, and they should be welcomed. Costco is a great example of being a good corporate neighbor. They provide living-wage jobs with benefits, they sell lots of local products, and their presence is keeping our gas prices in check. However, there are corporations that are not good neighbors, and we need to be wary of them, particularly those that would use extractive practices exporting our natural resources for the benefit of those elsewhere.
Supporting Local Business
I have several plans to support local business. As an entrepreneur who created a successful local business in Humboldt, I am acutely aware of some of the challenges facing local business today. Local businesses have had difficulty navigating the sea of regulations on the federal, state, and local levels. When rules are bent for some, it makes it harder to understand the process for all. We need a level playing field. Sadly, we have lost important local entities due to lack of support in the system.
RRDEC, the Redwood Region Economic Development Commission is a great asset. They provide some support for business, but they cannot do all that needs to be done.
This is why I am proposing to create the position of Business Ombudsperson. This office would act as a one-stop for helping local businesses navigate regulations at the federal, state, and local levels. They would be able to give consistent and accurate advice. This person would also act as a facilitator with banks and other funders to assist local businesses. The idea is to have help available before situations become critical like they did with Loleta Cheese. This ombudsperson would also act as a liaison between local businesses, RRDEC, SBA, and other business resources. An ombudsperson will point local business people in the right direction and help make sure that local businesses are supported by the county.
Agriculture and the Economy
Agriculture is critical to our sense of place and our quality of life. Keeping food production close to consumers contributes to a more sustainable way of life. Not only does it lower our carbon footprint, but food is fresher and has more nutrients. Agriculture has been and should continue to be a major player in our local economy. Here are some key points of my policies:
Protect Ag lands and Timber Production Zones from development
- This preserves local character
- Prevents urban sprawl
- Maintains critical green spaces and wildlife habitat
Brand Humboldt Products
- Cannabis as a part of the agriculture economy (see cannabis policy for details)
- Humboldt meat, dairy, and seafood
- Locally produced products
- Organic products
Develop Environmentally Responsible Aquaculture
- Shellfish in the Bay — Oysters and more
- Fisheries — Habitat protection for aquatic nurseries
- Sustainable harvest
- Support for genetic diversity
Support science-based best practices
Green Energy and the Economy
As we transition to locally-produced green energy, there are many opportunities. For details, please see my energy policy. Green energy offers economic opportunities through:
- Installation and Maintenance — Many opportunities for entrepreneurs and new technologies
- Electric vehicle charging
- Education and Outreach
- Micro Wind
- Instream Hydro
- Carbon Sequestration
- Planting trees
- Sustainable Timber production
The Gig Economy
As technology improves, more people will be able to telecommute and/or participate in the gig economy. Humboldt must invest in infrastructure (fiber optic cable) in order to allow people to telecommute.
We should focus on developing tourism that provides people with the unique experiences that can be found only here in Humboldt. These experiences are best served by small businesses rather than attracting large out-of-the-area players like cruise ships. Here are some opportunities for businesses that also give tourists reasons to stay longer.
- Guided Tours
- Agriculture and Cannabis Tourism
- Cultural/Historical Tourism
- Natural Environment:
Humboldt needs a strong vision for our energy policy. I believe that it should be based on creating sustainable energy to meet our needs. This is in contrast to the current focus on large industrial production. We can create green sustainable energy that is also resilient so that we are not subject to PG&E public safety power shutoffs. This distributed energy plan includes many modes of generation, storage, and will create jobs and opportunities for business.
We need a new vision for Humboldt’s energy policy. The current focus is based on an old model from the early days of electricity production: make electricity in one centralized place and distribute it along the grid for hundreds of miles. My new vision has a lot of advantages to all of us: Sustainable green energy and distributed production. Under this umbrella, we can do so much.
Many ways of making energy
We can make green, sustainable energy in many ways. In addition to solar (more on that) we can use micro-wind, instream hydroelectric (no dams needed), and other technologies that are just coming online like tidal, hydrogen fuel cell, and off-shore wind (at a reasonable size).
Why not make energy at an industrial scale?
When we use the old centralized model, we are locking ourselves into the PG&E grid (and their “public safety power shutoffs”). At an industrial scale, we are looking to an outside commercial company to come into Humboldt and build a facility here; they would extract energy and export it.
- We only get a few crumbs of tax revenues—most goes to the State of California
- We carry all the burden of the facility (environmental impacts, view-shed impacts, etc.)
- The profits are exported out of our area; very few dollars remain in our local economy.
- Projects have a limited lifespan. We don’t want to be left with the clean-up.
Rather than an antiquated industrial model, we need a model that works for the 21st century. We need to focus on sustainable, locally produced, green energy. Sustainable, locally produced, green energy has worked in other rural communities, and it can (and does) work here.
This means that energy is produced closer to where it is used. Decentralizing our production gives us more resiliency and makes us safer.
Solar energy can and does work for most of our needs. With battery back-up, it can get us through long, dark, nights as well as long, dark, winters. California is moving toward electric vehicles with about 1/3 of all cars in the state to be zero emissions by 2030; electric vehicles can serve as battery backup.
- Solar is effective—many homes and businesses in Humboldt make enough energy to meet all their needs. My home has solar, and we typically make enough energy to meet our needs each year.
- Solar is flexible—grid-tied or off-grid.
— Grid-tied houses (like ours) generate energy when the sun is out and put it into the grid (our meter runs backwards). At night, we draw energy from the grid. We pay the difference/get a credit once a year.
— Off-grid systems are stand alone. (Our system can be switched to be off-grid during a power outage).
These are solar panel arrays that can power an area (like Blue Lake or the airport). Ideally, they have battery backup rather than diesel generators.
— Far-flung communities (like Petrolia or Orleans) would be well served by Micro-Grids.
- Municipal solar can be used to power neighborhoods or communities AND bring in revenue.
— Solar panels are placed on publicly owned structures and/or land.
— The municipality creates and sells the energy to the community at below market rates. Everybody wins.
— This revenue is used to fund programs and services
— Municipal solar has been used by communities in Cape Cod.
- Neighborhood Solar can be a private or public-private partnership, or a collective.
— Neighborhood solar in Milwaukee has a social justice and equity component.
- Sustainable Green Energy can address social justice and equity issues
— People with privilege will always have access; we need to be sure it is available to everyone.
Sustainable Energy and the Local Economy
- Local generation means local business opportunities
- Local businesses pay taxes
- Local businesses pay local people who shop locally
- New markets and new products mean more opportunities
Even more information
Green energy for Humboldt begins with a vision. The current energy policy guide is not in the General Plan, but in RCEA’s guiding documents. From the RCEA website:
- “Development of New Local Utility-Scale Renewable Energy Projects”
- “The RePower Humboldt strategic plan published in 2013 showed that Humboldt County has hundreds of megawatts of untapped renewable energy potential from a variety of sources…”
This is a perspective based on an industrial scale, centralized model and extractive practices.
I believe that Humboldt County needs a different energy goal including:
- Distributed generation
- Multiple modes of green energy generation
We need to create our own energy. We should never be at the mercy of PG&E and their power outages. I support that when PG&E emerges from bankruptcy, it should be in the form of a publicly owned utility. Utilities should be publicly owned, never owned by for-profit companies.
Multiple Modes of Green Energy Generation
There are many sustainable ways of generating green energy without damaging the environment. Solar has enormous potential. There are communities who have already begun municipal solar projects. Here is a link to what some communities in Cape Cod have done. Their municipal solar not only generates electricity, but is a valuable income stream. Here is what Corvallis, OR is doing. Equity and social justice can also be served through neighborhood solar as in this article from the AP. In addition to solar, European countries are making energy with tidal generation. There is instream hydro-electric (that do not dam rivers), small-scale wind, and more.
All of this is possible with existing technologies. Imagine what else could be out there! That is why RCEA should be attending green energy conferences. They need to learn what new innovations and ideas are being developed. They need to talk to those entrepreneurs who are already in the market selling their inventions and bring them to Humboldt. Currently, RCEA has no budget to attend conferences.
A word about Biomass generation: Humboldt County currently houses 2 biomass generators fueling about 1/3 of our energy needs. We need to wean ourselves off of Biomass as other green forms of energy come online. Biomass is not green energy; it may be technically carbon neutral, but there are other concerns including particulate matter (smoke), potential soil damage from the particulates released, and more. This is a public health burden especially for those with asthma, and vulnerable populations such as children and seniors. Biomass generation has been opposed by many groups including: Allergy & Asthma Network, American Academy of Pediatrics, American Lung Association, American Public Health Association, Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America, National Association of County & City Health Officials, National Environmental Health Association, and Physicians for Social Responsibility, as cited by the Natural Resources Defense Council blog here.
The issues of Homelessness, Mental Health, and Substance Abuse are all interconnected, so policy addressing them needs to be unified and connected. Homelessness exacerbates mental illness (just like being in any other stressful environment). People self-medicate to deal with the pain and the stress. It becomes a vicious cycle. The solution that holds the most promise is Housing First. We need to remember that mental health is a healthcare issue, and that those suffering from mental disabilities are often discriminated against and victimized. They have an illness, not a character flaw. Substance abuse is another health care issue. We need to get people into treatment using science-based best practices rather than incarcerating them.
According to the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness, here are the top 10 best practices:
- Start at the top: Get state and local leaders to publicly commit to and coordinate efforts on ending chronic homelessness
- Identify and be accountable to all people experiencing chronic homelessness, including people cycling through institutional settings
- Ramp up outreach, in-reach, and engagement efforts
- Implement a Housing First system orientation and response
- Set and hold partners accountable to ambitious short-term housing placement goals
- Prioritize people experiencing chronic homelessness in existing supportive housing
- Project the need for additional supportive housing and reallocate funding to take it to the scale needed
- Engage and support public housing agencies and multifamily affordable housing operators to increase supportive housing through limited preferences and project-based vouchers
- Leverage Medicaid and behavioral health funding to pay for services in supportive housing
- Help people increase their income through employment opportunities and connections to mainstream benefits and income supports
Housing First is an evidence-based best practice that is saving communities money and rescuing people from lives of misery. The principle is to get people into permanent housing. We have had success with temporary housing through vouchers and the good work of the Betty Kwan Chinn Foundation. The River Life Foundation has not only moved people to shelter, but has sent out-of-the-area homeless back to their families and friends. The Rescue Mission is also helping many folks. These are great examples of organizations and citizens stepping in where they are needed, but we need to do so much more. When people have permanent housing, we are addressing some of their most basic needs, and their demand to access services because they are in crisis diminishes greatly. Once they are in a home, it is easier to connect people with services, training, and employment opportunities. Housing First has had great success in many communities.
Here are some examples:
Housed 91% of their homeless population
Read about it in this NPR story
Saved $4M in 1 year (crisis intervention services) Here
San Diego County—
Homeless Vets down 24% in 2 years
Down 40% in 5 years
Saved $3.5M in those 5 years
San Diego Housing Commission details here
Orlando (pilot program) Information here
Housed the 100 people who used most services first
339 Chronically homeless now housed
— ER visits down 60%
— Jail visits down 85%
— 96% still housed
Looking for the next 500 people
Homelessness costs local governments
According to HUD, each chronically homeless person costs local municipalities between $30,000 and $50,000 per year in emergency services, jail visits, and other interventions
Humboldt County needs more mental health facilities and more mental health practitioners. According to research supported by Dr. Nadine Burke Harris, California’s Surgeon General, Humboldt County has more than the average people with high ACEs (Adverse Childhood Experiences) than most of the state. One of the outcomes of higher ACE scores is an increase in mental health issues.
We need treatment, not incarceration.
So-called youth offenders are young people who almost always have high ACEs scores. These children need treatment for their trauma, not incarceration. That is why I am proposing that we close juvenile detention facilities, and take the partially constructed facility and re-make it as a mental health campus.
I am opposed to expanding the jail. Experience has shown that no matter how large the capacity, it will be filled. The incumbent says that the best mental health treatment in our area is in the jail. If we have to incarcerate people in order to treat mental illness, we must be crazy. Instead of incarceration we need treatment facilities using evidence-based best practices. A large number of the people who are incarcerated have mental health and substance abuse issues. Let’s treat them rather than locking them up. See this article from the Lostcoastoutpost.com
- 20% of California’s jail inmates have mental illness
— Psychiatric medication
- 30% of California’s Prison population has mental illness (Article in the North Coast Journal)
- Plus undiagnosed incarcerated at both levels
- Diversion into mental health treatment works (Santa Clara County)
— 70% complete programs
— Jail population reduced by 25%
Treatment, not incarceration
Evidence-based best practices like Waterfront Recovery
Opportunity to connect substance users with services
As part of an overall climate change mitigation policy, both mass transit and trails are critical to our future. Furthermore, they are a necessary part of our community and how folks get from place to place. There are unique challenges for a small rural county with a large area to serve, but we also have some great opportunities.
Transportation is the largest greenhouse gas source in Humboldt County, accounting for 54% of all greenhouse gas emissions (as presented by county staff at the CAP workshop on January 15, 2020). We have three great opportunities to reduce this number as outlined below.
These are not normally included in a mass transit discussion, but if we are looking at lowering our greenhouse gas emissions, they are a part of the solution. Electric vehicles can be charged by solar panels and they can, in turn, become a battery backup for solar power when there are outages. There are grants available to assist low-income people in purchasing electric vehicles. The County of Humboldt should be helping put this together.
HTA is already scheduling the replacement of their aging fleet with electric buses, and they are planning to install solar panels to charge them. But we can do more.
- Work with employers to align bus service with the needs of employees. There are several larger employers in our area whose workers cannot commute by bus because the schedule does not accommodate their needs. We need to facilitate better cooperation to encourage more bus ridership.
- Expand bus service. There are several communities that are not served at all by mass transit. We need to expand service to Ferndale and the Mattole Valley and other places where there is no public transportation option.
- Expand free service. HTA has experimented with free weekend and special-event service, and ridership goes up. We should work towards a goal of free bus to get more people to take the bus.
I have been a trail advocate for over 12 years. I loved commuting by bicycle until I was hit on the freeway. A regional trail system will do much to enhance our community.
- Trails provide a designated place for non-motorized traffic: bikes, scooters, walking.
- They are part of safe routes to schools.
- They provide more opportunity for exercise, creating healthier communities.
- They attract tourism and tourist dollars.
- They increase property values.
- They are a viable safe option for commuting to work and school.
As part of the Great Redwood Trail project, Humboldt has a unique opportunity to expand our trail system.
- Completion of the Bay Trail linking Arcata and Eureka (work is underway).
- I support extending the Hikshari’ trail south from Eureka to College of the Redwoods, then towards Loleta, Fortuna, and southern Humboldt.
— CR students who wish to commute by bicycle must do so on the freeway; we can do better for them and for us.
- I support extending the Hammond Trail north to Trinidad and beyond.
- I support the completion of the Annie & Mary Rail Trail between Arcata and Blue Lake.
- Eventually, Humboldt should be the crown jewel in the Great Redwood Trail Project between San Francisco and Humboldt.
I believe that all people should be treated with respect and human dignity. That respect includes engaging in civil discourse with people with differing ideas. That respect is rooted in recognition that we are all on land belonging to indigenous people. Furthermore, that respect becomes even more powerful when we extend it to and include the most vulnerable among us. In my 30 years engaged in the Stop the Violence movement, I have learned a great deal about the importance of respect and inclusion. I intend to bring that practice with me to the Board of Supervisors.
We live in a polarized world. This schism has divided families and friends, communities, and our nation. We need a new way of having conversations. We need to return to the idea of civil discourse where we can express our ideas and our views in a way that is respectful of others, where everyone can be heard, and where everyone can listen. I have decades of experience facilitating conversations with people across the spectrum. I am skilled at helping folks feel heard and understood. I am a consensus builder; it is important that people are included in the conversation. This is why I am planning regular townhall meetings throughout the district. It makes more sense for me to come to you.
Respect for Indigenous Land and Peoples
We all live on indigenous land. I stood with our Wiyot elders against the Terra-Gen wind project. I marched with them, and I spoke out against the desecration of their sacred sites. It is clear to me after this debacle that we need to formalize our consultation with our local first nations. This is why I am championing the idea put forth by Wiyot elder, Cheryl Seidner, to have a tribal liaison to the Board of Supervisors. In this way we will be able to avoid development on sacred sites and further insults.
Respect for and Celebration of Immigrants
Except for Native Americans, we are all immigrants. I am a second generation American. There is no such thing as an illegal person. We have diverse and vibrant immigrant communities. Many of these hard-working members of our community are under threat. I was a firm supporter of Measure K. Humboldt became the first county to add sanctuary protections. Many immigrants still live in fear. We have the power to change that by embracing all the members of our community, and that starts with leadership that is respectful of all people and all cultures. I understand that when we are more diverse, we all benefit from the richness of the experience brought from different places and other points of view.
I understand that many people do not speak English as a first language, and I would support making translators available at public meetings. I also support having some meetings in the evenings or weekends, and even making childcare available when there are issues before the board that would benefit from more public participation by people who cannot afford to take time from work.
I understand that people of color and members of the queer community do not feel safe. It is unacceptable to me that we have anyone in our community in fear for their safety due to their group identity or appearance, but that is the reality that many live with. We need to make changes. Some of those changes are coming out of those communities themselves, and I do support the need for exclusive spaces where people can be safe, talk frankly about their experiences, and gain support. I also know we need to do far more as a community. We cannot fix a problem until we acknowledge that it exists. I acknowledge that we have a problem with racism, homophobia, and other forms of discrimination in our community. What I can do is offer leadership and a lifetime of being an ally. We need community discussions and community education. We can follow evidence-based best practices. We may not be able to change what people think, but we can enforce a standard of behavior and public discourse that insists that all people be treated with civility and respect. We can call people by their chosen names and use their chosen pronouns. We can stand up for our neighbors when we see that they are being treated unfairly, and we can work together to keep them safe.
We have many survivors amongst us. There are people who have survived horrific abuse at the hands of someone who was supposed to love and care for them. We have veterans who have served us who have wounds both visible and psychological. Many of these people are vulnerable and need extra support and resources to heal. I support the work of the Humboldt Domestic Violence Coordinating Council, CASA, North Coast Rape Crisis Team, the Vet Center, and other local organizations who serve these community members. Nationally, there is a threat to the way acts of domestic and sexualized violence are legally defined. Fortunately, California has stronger protections. Humboldt County needs to support these vital services, and even more, we need to support our survivors.
Finally, all people deserve to be treated with human dignity. We need every one of us. We need people of all races, cultures, and genders. We need people with differing abilities. We need veterans and those who have served. We need our survivors. I believe that each unique individual has something to contribute to our community. Let’s work together to be sure each of us has the opportunity to do so.
We need to have a plan and a schedule for regular road maintenance. There are several issues.
There was a time when Humboldt County maintained all its county roads with a regular schedule. This work was done by Humboldt County union employees who would use the chip seal method with equipment owned by the county. Each year they would resurface about 10% of county roads. In this way, every ten years, all county roads would be resurfaced. This kept them in relatively good shape.
Then things changed. This method was abandoned. Crew strength was cut in half, and the pay for these positions has not kept up with the pace of inflation. As a result of the low pay, the county has been unable to keep people in this position; they leave for better paying jobs elsewhere.
Where we are now
There is no systematic road maintenance schedule. Pot hole repair is driven by complaints. County workers (usually 2 workers with a truck and a shovel) use a cold mix of asphalt that never hardens. We have watched a pot hole in our neighborhood be patched twice in 3 months, and the hole is as bad as ever. This method was never intended to be road maintenance. It is meant to be a short-term, temporary measure until a proper repair can be scheduled. Now, much of the “maintenance” of our roads is outsourced to private contractors. We are getting less work for our money while our infrastructure continues to deteriorate. We are operating in crisis mode. This crisis has been created by mismanagement and deferring the work for another time. That other time has come home to roost.
- Deferred maintenance. This is the most costly way to do any repairs. By the time roads have deteriorated due to lack of scheduled maintenance, the work required is more extensive and more expensive, and we all pay. We all pay for the work, and we all pay for the damage to our vehicles.
- Current road conditions put communities at risk. (Imagine driving from Honeydew to go to a hospital with a painful injury.)
- Call and report a pot hole. This is not a maintenance plan, it is a crisis! This is no way to maintain our roads and infrastructure. We need a schedule, and we need staff.
- Road maintenance staff. The county needs to raise the pay to a livable wage to keep these positions filled.
- Once we have the staff, we can return to regular, planned, road maintenance.
- Deteriorated roads have a negative impact on tourism and other businesses.
Global Heating is real, and Humboldt County has been named as ground zero for sea-level rise in California. According to Humboldt Bay Keeper, we can expect a sea-level rise in Humboldt Bay of 1 foot by 2030, 2 feet by 2050, and 3 feet by 2060. We also have the potential to be a leader in how to address this crisis in rural communities. The term global heating does not mean that our temperatures will consistently rise, it means that we will experience more extreme weather events like last year’s tragic flooding, and it means that our weather will be less predictable with overall global temperatures rising as seen in this video from NASA.
One of the things I will do immediately is appoint a qualified person to the Humboldt County Planning Commission, not a climate denier (as my opponent has done).
There is action we can take locally to help mitigate this crisis.
Short Term: We can help Humboldt Bay and other coastal areas be more resilient by restoring the natural and man-made protections that have been damaged.
• Restore and enhance salt marshes & eel grass beds
— Calms and slows incoming water
— Creates valuable habitat
• Repair & build up levees
— Repair and enhance road/trail prism
— Enhance with vegetation to prevent erosion
• Slow and diffuse run off
— Erosion contributes to salt water intrusion
— Vegetation stabilizes vulnerable sites
— Use best practices in water treatment/run off
Long Term: We need to have shovel-ready plans. Both the State of California and the federal government are providing funding to communities to deal with sea-level rise. The State of California already has grant funding in place via the Ocean Protection Council. Both the state and the federal government are already funding research projects and have published guidelines on how communities can start planning to deal with sea-level rise. NOAA has a Coastal Resilience Grant Program. Communities with shovel-ready plans will be funded before those in the planning stages. We need to be ready for funding. (Note: In several debates, the incumbent has flatly stated that there is no way we will get money from the State or the Feds for sea-level rise. Clearly, he has not done his homework.)
Energy Options have an impact on global heating. Our local choices can make a difference. (Please see my policies on energy and transportation for more details).
• Locally produced
• Green energy
• Distributed Generation
Transportation is also tied to our carbon foot print.
• More trails
• More mass transit
• Electric vehicles
Locally we have some of the best opportunities to practice the most effective method to combat the climate crisis: planting trees. It is well explained in this article from The Guardian. Indigenous people have lived here and have managed our forests beautifully for 40,000 years. We should be learning from their science and practice. Things we can do:
• Plant more trees
• Plant a diversity of species
— Guidance from indigenous scientists
• Allow more trees to reach maturity
— More carbon sequestration
— Higher quality timber=higher profits from harvest
• Eliminate unnecessary roads in wild spaces
— Remove and re-nature old timber harvest roads
— More intact habitat
— More resilient network of trees